As shown in the previous Chapter, many groups over the centuries, changing, replenishing with new facilities and acquired new aesthetic qualities. In addition, each era was created in the historical cities of their ensembles, which often evolved into a single art system with ancient ensembles. All of this suggests that today it is possible and often necessary new construction that complements the historic town of new ensembles or even individual incorporating modern facilities into the existing ensemble construction.
But we must bear in mind that today the blend of old and new becomes a problem many times more complex than before. This is due to the changing scale and technology of new construction, with the necessity of solving a number of complex engineering and social issues with the advent of an entirely new stage in the development of urban culture in the broadest sense of the word. So today it is particularly important that the introduction of the new building in the old city was carried out with great tact and skill, with preliminary thorough study of the historical principles of the buildings of the old town and only in those cases when it is possible to prove the need for such new construction. Continue reading
In some architectural schools (e.g. in England) the number of ribs was great, the builders gave extra rib, so-called lierne, tierceron.
Gothic cross in the arch loads are applied does not on the whole circumference, but only in those places, where the diagonal and axial ribs. This is effective not only to Central but to the side naves. In fact, in the Gothic cathedrals of the wall between the pylons are eliminated and replaced with vast window openings. In this framing system, the places of application of force and a reference point was supposed to strengthen. In this regard, acquire a special role of the buttresses for greater stability which they gave stepped.
In Gothic architecture appear the so-called flying buttresses, which were a crucial element in the overall system balance of the building. The flying buttresses — protivozastojnye elements, “sloping” of the arch (the arch), a fifth adjacent to the base of the vault of the main nave, and the other resting against a massive pillar standing in a row of others on the line of the exterior walls of the building. Continue reading
In the mountains in the South of the Kemerovo region, geologists have found a “wall” of piled up on each other rectangular stones. The find has been dubbed the “Russian Stonehenge”. According to one version, the structure appeared in the times of ancient civilization. For the first time researchers interested in this area in Mountain Shoria in 1991. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, to explore the territory was not possible due to lack of money. Work resumed this fall.
Available technology of ancient
One of the initiators of the expedition — a native of the Kemerovo region researcher George Jones. He wrote in his group in the social network: “expedition to Mountain Shoria. What we saw there, shocking in its scope. Huge granite blocks stacked in a wall of polygonal masonry”.
“The geologists compared the structure found with Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids. They are going this summer again to go on an expedition to solve the mystery of its origin”, — told ITAR-TASS Deputy Chairman of the Tomsk branch of the Russian geographical society Eugene Vertman. Continue reading