As shown in the previous Chapter, many groups over the centuries, changing, replenishing with new facilities and acquired new aesthetic qualities. In addition, each era was created in the historical cities of their ensembles, which often evolved into a single art system with ancient ensembles. All of this suggests that today it is possible and often necessary new construction that complements the historic town of new ensembles or even individual incorporating modern facilities into the existing ensemble construction.
But we must bear in mind that today the blend of old and new becomes a problem many times more complex than before. This is due to the changing scale and technology of new construction, with the necessity of solving a number of complex engineering and social issues with the advent of an entirely new stage in the development of urban culture in the broadest sense of the word. So today it is particularly important that the introduction of the new building in the old city was carried out with great tact and skill, with preliminary thorough study of the historical principles of the buildings of the old town and only in those cases when it is possible to prove the need for such new construction. Continue reading
Despite the fact that all the megalithic temples of Malta were excavated long ago, and the Internet, there are quite a lot of scientific publications devoted to them, their place in the culture of prehistoric Europe is not completely clear. In the last few years historians and archaeologists have put forward several hypotheses about the origin of the Maltese megaliths.
The construction of temples on Malta began much earlier than in continental Europe (the oldest known – Cairn de Barnenez, Finistere, France, 4500 G. BC), and, therefore, of the Maltese megaliths are largely prototypes for monuments of other regions. Obvious is the fact that the culture of prehistoric Malta are largely associated with Sicily, so archaeologists suggest that Malta was a cult centre of the peoples of the Sicilian Neolithic-paleometal. Historians have determined that the megalithic temples of Malta, like other megaliths of Western and southern Europe served archeoastronomical viewfinders, tsekavshiri beam of light at sunrise in the days of the solstices and the equinoxes, which is quite rare in the megalithic area. Continue reading
The first samples of what can be called architecture . date back to the early days of ancient civilizations in the middle East 3000 – 1200 BC; when they were built fortified cities with ziggurats (high towers, crowned with temples) – an idea which was continued by the ancient Egyptians in the pyramids, graves with tombstones and temples. But the ancient Greeks turned architecture into an art form: their legacy are the principles of proportions, shapes and patterns (later developed and expanded by the Romans) – has influenced all of Western architecture. Greek and Roman architecture had countless ideas architectural styles of buildings and interiors around the world. Greek classicism was revived in various forms, while the innovation of the Romans – arch – made possible the creation of the Gothic style which is most completely expressed in numerous cathedrals in Europe.
The classical tradition
The significance of ancient Greek classic architecture, which flourished in the middle of the fifth century BC. is not the diversity or complexity of forms, but in its simplicity: the design of columns as vertical supports to beams or blocks of stone, in particular marble. Greeks to ameliorating that beauty can be achieved by careful observance of the purity of its lines and proportions. They also showed that the building can be more than just a shelter, a place of worship or trade, and something more- harmonious work of art. Continue reading