As shown in the previous Chapter, many groups over the centuries, changing, replenishing with new facilities and acquired new aesthetic qualities. In addition, each era was created in the historical cities of their ensembles, which often evolved into a single art system with ancient ensembles. All of this suggests that today it is possible and often necessary new construction that complements the historic town of new ensembles or even individual incorporating modern facilities into the existing ensemble construction.
But we must bear in mind that today the blend of old and new becomes a problem many times more complex than before. This is due to the changing scale and technology of new construction, with the necessity of solving a number of complex engineering and social issues with the advent of an entirely new stage in the development of urban culture in the broadest sense of the word. So today it is particularly important that the introduction of the new building in the old city was carried out with great tact and skill, with preliminary thorough study of the historical principles of the buildings of the old town and only in those cases when it is possible to prove the need for such new construction. Continue reading
Classic, as you know, immortal. Its heard all styles, but few are able to distinguish Empire from modern. So, it’s time to learn what classical styles and how they differ from each other.
Antique style . Features five distinguished antique clothes: pattern, structure, proportionality, symmetry, appropriateness. At that time the mortal body of our first ancestor came to be regarded as the mirror tribute to mirror the perfection of the world. Accordingly, the clothes also had to bend the laws of logic and harmony. In this regard, we developed the five requirements. What do they mean?
Regularity and organization was called the cloth use is strictly of a certain width, in accordance with the size of the loom. The clothes weren’t cut, but only gathered matter into vertical folds. The proportionality and symmetry of the dress was reflected in their strict conformity to the structure of the human figure. Without exception, all followed the motto born in Greece: “Everything in moderation”. Great importance was given to the appropriateness of clothing — she had to conform to the shape and needs of the owner. Continue reading
In some architectural schools (e.g. in England) the number of ribs was great, the builders gave extra rib, so-called lierne, tierceron.
Gothic cross in the arch loads are applied does not on the whole circumference, but only in those places, where the diagonal and axial ribs. This is effective not only to Central but to the side naves. In fact, in the Gothic cathedrals of the wall between the pylons are eliminated and replaced with vast window openings. In this framing system, the places of application of force and a reference point was supposed to strengthen. In this regard, acquire a special role of the buttresses for greater stability which they gave stepped.
In Gothic architecture appear the so-called flying buttresses, which were a crucial element in the overall system balance of the building. The flying buttresses — protivozastojnye elements, “sloping” of the arch (the arch), a fifth adjacent to the base of the vault of the main nave, and the other resting against a massive pillar standing in a row of others on the line of the exterior walls of the building. Continue reading