In some architectural schools (e.g. in England) the number of ribs was great, the builders gave extra rib, so-called lierne, tierceron.
Gothic cross in the arch loads are applied does not on the whole circumference, but only in those places, where the diagonal and axial ribs. This is effective not only to Central but to the side naves. In fact, in the Gothic cathedrals of the wall between the pylons are eliminated and replaced with vast window openings. In this framing system, the places of application of force and a reference point was supposed to strengthen. In this regard, acquire a special role of the buttresses for greater stability which they gave stepped.
In Gothic architecture appear the so-called flying buttresses, which were a crucial element in the overall system balance of the building. The flying buttresses — protivozastojnye elements, “sloping” of the arch (the arch), a fifth adjacent to the base of the vault of the main nave, and the other resting against a massive pillar standing in a row of others on the line of the exterior walls of the building. Continue reading
In the past two years by an expedition of the Chelyabinsk scientific center, there were works on the study of megalithic structures found near lake Turgoyak, North of Miass, Chelyabinsk region. In 2003, the island was visited by the expedition of S. A. Grigorieva, N. M. Menshenina and M. S. Arkanov, which made the conclusion about the antiquity of this monument and made his initial description and documentation . In the summer and autumn of 2004 on the island worked expedition of the Chelyabinsk scientific center of UB RAS under the guidance of the authors of this article. In this paper we will not dwell on the description of detected objects given in the above
The field season of 2004 was made on the largest megalithic structure No. 1. This work made significant changes in our ideas about this monument, formed on the basis of the previous studies. So it was assumed that recorded in the southern part of the deepening and associated Windows have been made by believers in the reuse of the monument . However, the discovery of the wall in one of the indentations suggested that indentations are the result of the collapse of the floors, and there are cameras that collapsed in antiquity. Accordingly, it is possible that recorded in the southern part of the mound the Windows also belong to the original design. Continue reading
Everyone who is involved with the romance of the middle ages, sooner or later becomes wonder which castle is the most ancient, the biggest, most beautiful…
I will try to answer these questions to the best of their knowledge and the information that can be found on the Internet.
Russian sources suggest the role of the oldest a lot of different locks. But if you open the English Wikipedia list of the oldest buildings in the world, it turns out that scientists found the oldest ruins of the stone walls of the castle or perhaps the fortress is located in Germany North of the Alps.
This structure is called Heinsenberg (it. Heunischenburg). However, this name, according to the researchers, was given to fortification in the middle ages, and its walls were built in the 9th century BC.
However, it is recognized that Heinsenberg unlikely to be fully what we today mean by the word castle. And in this case we have much more reason to believe the oldest, located in England, Dover castle. Continue reading
Each cultural epoch has its own peculiar only to her philosophy and understanding of nature and society, time and space, the order of the universe, the relations of people in society etc. All these representations of the medieval era were shaped by the Christian creed and the Christian Church . The first form of medieval Romanesque aesthetics becomes a type of artistic perception, which reflected the time of feudal fragmentation. In the tenth century artistic culture of the middle Ages were able to create a unified European style that received the name of Romanesque (“in the manner of the Romans”).
Unstable historical situation, the constant conflicts of the knights of the almost incessant wars led to the transformation of architecture in the principal art form of the Romanesque style. Stone buildings in the period of civil strife became fortresses and protect people. These structures had massive walls and narrow Windows. Continue reading
In the mountains in the South of the Kemerovo region, geologists have found a “wall” of piled up on each other rectangular stones. The find has been dubbed the “Russian Stonehenge”. According to one version, the structure appeared in the times of ancient civilization. For the first time researchers interested in this area in Mountain Shoria in 1991. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, to explore the territory was not possible due to lack of money. Work resumed this fall.
Available technology of ancient
One of the initiators of the expedition — a native of the Kemerovo region researcher George Jones. He wrote in his group in the social network: “expedition to Mountain Shoria. What we saw there, shocking in its scope. Huge granite blocks stacked in a wall of polygonal masonry”.
“The geologists compared the structure found with Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids. They are going this summer again to go on an expedition to solve the mystery of its origin”, — told ITAR-TASS Deputy Chairman of the Tomsk branch of the Russian geographical society Eugene Vertman. Continue reading