The great wall of China
The development of Chinese architecture found its expression in the construction of palaces, monasteries, and temples. The materials except the stone were wood, bamboo, cane, clay and terracotta, earthenware, porcelain.
The coming to power of the first Emperor of the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 ad) were of great importance not only for the unification of a vast Empire, the boundaries of which have since not changed, but also for the development of Chinese culture, which became the basis of the Chinese worldview until the present time.
In the works of art displayed glorious moments of past history, exalted virtues, condemn vices. At the same time the creators of works of art often draw their inspiration from nature.
The era of the Han (III century BC — III century ad) is famous for its funerary complexes, which led to the “road spirits”, framed by statues of mythological animals. Underground burial, decorated with reliefs and paintings, it was also observed superstructure, inside which were decorated with flat reliefs. If in General for the development of art tends to abstraction from reality, in the Han dynasty, special attention is focused on the image of the surrounding reality.
As a result of penetration of Buddhism from India, in China and appear movietype places of worship. First of all, this pagoda, representing a tower of brick or stone, with multiple storeys with projecting roofs, and besides, the cave temples, such Indian.
As in India, in China, under the influence of structures of bamboo, some architectural forms took a peculiar nature, such as the corners of the roof were raised, and the roof was arched slightly.
At the beginning of our chronology there are new cities, and an important task again becomes the construction of palaces that were whole complexes of buildings with pavilions, gates and pools in the midst of architectural-designed parks. The Chinese has a special love of nature, evident in her sensitive to the attitudes and perceptions of important constituent parts of the living environment. This is reflected in the construction of temples that are grouped in symmetrical complexes, surrounded by landscaped gardens, which are a separate pagoda.
Except for the cities, temples and palaces were built waterworks, canals and dams.
Outstanding engineering work was the Great wall of China, the construction of which began in the IV century BC and continued for several generations.
In the history of China there were three main walls, each length of 10,000 Li (5,000 km.). Some sections of the defensive walls were built up in different fighting with each other small kingdoms in the North.
The Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (or Qin Shi Huang), who is considered one of the greatest despots in history, gained a whole army of peasants, soldiers, criminals and political prisoners, to update the damaged areas and connect these areas. So there was a continuous rampart that runs through the mountains along the border of his Empire. The wall was conceived as a strengthening against the raids of bellicose nomads-the Mongols from the North, and, in all probability, as evidence of the power and greatness of the Emperor. Thousands of scientists Confucians, branded and chained in shackles, have ensured the timely completion of the work. In the popular mind the great building appeared as the “wailing wall”. In one ancient legend tells that the wall was destroyed by the tears of a loving wife by the deceased at the construction site husband.
The second wall was built during the reign of the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 G. B. C.) to protect from the Huns, who made regular raids into the territory of China and spoiled the order of the wall, built by Qin Shi Huang. In 607 ad, during the sui dynasty, the building was reconstructed. During this period the building was occupied a million workers, half of them died.
For the construction of the third wall (Ming dynasty 1368-1644) was used for about 1 million people, then the wall has acquired its present form.
During the construction special attention was taken to ensure that each tower the Wall was in sight with two neighboring. With its watchtowers, using drums, smoke signals, and at night – with lights – it was possible to disseminate information throughout the country with never hitherto impossible speed. In addition, throughout from the wall to the Central city, at a distance of one horse transition from each other a small strong points, on which the messenger with urgent news could change the horse.
The total length of the wall exceeds 5 thousand miles It lay on the highest and inaccessible mountain ridges, like the comb, buried in their stone flesh. Designed to protect the borders of the Chinese Empire from the nomads that carried out raids from the North, the Great wall stretches across many treeless hills of the Mongolian border almost to Beijing.
A considered decision made it almost impregnable. The name “wall” is not accurate, because in reality it is a fortification with a height of 6.5 m and width at the base 6 m (to the top it narrowed to 1 m), including rampart, watch tower, delivered through every 120 m and the signal tower. Watch tower 2-3 floor were living quarters for the garrison and a place of storage of weapons and ammunition. Some where built with fortresses, many of which still surprise and power and grace of architecture. External facing is made of stone and brick, but inside was filled with compacted clay, the total of which is about 180 million square meters.
The military significance of the wall, when she was manned by troops respectively its length, was huge. The wall was not only the ramparts, but also expensive. Its width is 5.5 meters; this allowed to March in next five or Marines to ride next five cavalrymen. Even today, its average height is nine meters, and the height of the watchtowers – twelve meters. Over the centuries, however, it was abandoned and collapsed. In the recent past, parts of it have been restored for tourists.
The great wall of China – an unusually impressive structure. It withstood the impact of wind and weather over many centuries. The wall is a symbol of China as for the Chinese themselves and for foreigners. At the entrance to the restored part, you can see the inscription made by order of Mao TSE Tung – “If you have not visited the great Wall of China – you’re not a real Chinese”. Speaking of “great wall Hotel” is in Chinese its name,— you will say that this is one of the few creations of human hands, which the naked eye can be seen even from space.