Pyramid – the card of Egypt, in ancient times was considered one of the “seven wonders of the world”. The wonder of the world for several thousand years, was severely dilapidated – facing plates were removed and the insides of the pyramids with the mummies and the treasures of the long ago looted. But still these monumental creations built by man in the wilderness, impress by their greatness and be amazed by the Titanic work of the people lifted to the heavens with the simplest of fixtures and strength of his hands innumerable amount of stones and developed them into a surprisingly harmonious building.
The pyramids in Egypt, along the left, West Bank of the Nile, about a hundred, great and small, with smooth and stepped sides that have survived virtually unchanged and more like a shapeless heap of stones. The most famous of the pyramids are half an hour from downtown Cairo, on the edge of the desert plateau of Giza, looming over the green valley of the Nile. Here at Giza, there are three great pyramids – Cheops, Chephren and menkaure.
Three pyramids is only a part of the architectural ensemble of Giza: the pyramids near several smaller and with the Great Sphinx stele of Thutmose IV, which stands directly between its paws.
The largest of the pyramids – the pyramid of Cheops, the second Pharaoh of the fourth dynasty. This pyramid still remains the greatest architectural work of human hands. At the base it is a square with a side 227,5 meters. Height during construction is 146,6 meters, and now the pyramid is 9 meters below the upper stones fell during the earthquake. Inside of the great pyramid there are no inscriptions or decorations. There are three burial chambers lined with granite slabs. The sarcophagus of red granite, is empty. Neither the mummy nor funerary utensils were not found. Assume that the pyramid was plundered in ancient times.
The second largest pyramid in Giza belongs to Pharaoh Chephren. It was built 40 years later than the first. Here is clearly visible over the whole set of structures consisting of a temple in a valley, road, temple of the dead and the pyramid.
Completes the ensemble of the great pyramids of Giza the pyramid of menkaure. This pyramid is much smaller than their predecessors, but it emphasizes the greatness of the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren.
Guarding the pyramids is the ancient guardian, the Great Sphinx. Sphinx – resting lion with a human head (Mamluk soldiers blew his nose), is the largest monolithic sculpture. Its length – 73 meters, height – 20 meters. It is believed that the Sphinx was carved during the construction of the pyramid of Khafre, and his face bears the features of this Pharaoh.