The ancient art
The term “Romanesque” . emerged in the XIX century Applied to ancient Western European art XIX-the X-XII centuries (in some countries – XIII century)
Architecture. Architecture is the leading art form of the time. Romanesque architecture combines classic elements and elements of local “barbarous” architecture. The most common are the churches, monasteries and castles. The appearance of the Romanesque buildings of simple, massive forms clearly legible objects, with solemn severity, monolithic integrity. Narrow slit-like window-slits reinforces the impression of heaviness, impressive buildings. The focus of life in the early middle ages castles were powerful secular and ecclesiastical lords. Knight’s castle, built usually on a hill, in a remote place, surrounded by thick walls topped with battlements and towers, along the walls not protected by the terrain, came a deep ditch, usually filled with water. The entrance to the fortress served as a fortified portal with a folding bridge.
Refuge of the feudal lords were powerful Donjon tower, which served as the compositional center of the castle, and around it were situated the dwelling and service premises.
The monasteries of that time in their appearance is very nominalizati. The centre of the monastery complex was the temple – the most significant creation of Romanesque architecture. The most common are the churches of the basilican type, inherited from the Romans the shape of a Basilica. Romanesque Church in the plan was a Latin cross, formed by intersection of longitudinal spaces (the naves), which were usually three or five, with the cross of the transepts. The Central, higher than the lateral side, the nave was completed in the West apse. The entrance to the Church was usually made in the form of portals, laid out sequentially decreasing to the project, embedded in the thickness of the walls of semicircular arches. The wall space above the entrance, a limited semicircular arch (tympanum) are sometimes decorated with relief images.
The appearance of the Romanesque Cathedral is harsh, simple, concise. The center of the composition is usually served as a tower crowned by a spire, which was installed in the tribune. The example of this Church is the Cathedral of Notre-Dame La Grande and Poitiers (France).
Sculpture . Widespread in ancient Roman art has received a monumental sculpture, which is often painted cross. Plastic is subject to Romanesque architecture, is mainly used in the decoration of cathedrals. Relief images on the subjects of “Scripture” was located on the West facade, tympanum, pillars and columns, they obeyed the form of elements of construction: the columns aspect ratio elongated, elongated, frieze has gained a squat shape.
The Central image of Romanesque sculpture – the Christ. Developed the theme of good and evil, embodied in the images of Paradise and hell; the sublime is opposed to the sordid, tragic – comic grotesque. For example, the tympanum of the Cathedral of St. Lazarus in Autun (1130-1140.) in the scene “last judgment” the terrible and majestic image of Jesus Christ is contrasted with the almost Comedy plot: an angel and a devil, depicted simultaneously scary and funny, weighed the good and evil deeds of the dead.
Gradually, in temple sculpture penetrate the images of peasants, ordinary citizens, comedians with their daily chores and concerns, be the heroes of folklore, generated by people’s imagination: chimeras, demons, Prosvirina in semihuman form. Romanesque sculptors, developing problem ugly, drawn to the fantastic, monstrous images.
Painting . Painting, sculpture and architecture subject. The focus of all kinds of ancient arts is the temple. The most common technique is the fresco begins to develop a stained glass window.(the kind of painting of colored pieces of glass, connected by lead carcasei). Stained glass Windows fill the window openings in the apse (the wider dissemination of this kind of painting gets in the Gothic art). Multi-colored murals on the subjects of “Scripture” was covered wall surfaces. The planar nature of the paintings gave the mighty walls of even greater massiveness. An example of these paintings can serve as the frescoes of the Church of Saint-Savin sur Gartal in Poitou (the end of XI-XII century) is One of the best pieces – the fresco “the Construction of the Babylonian baseny”.
Gothic ancient art
Gothic – the next stage in the development of medieval art. It affects a variety of forms, unity and integrity in all its manifestations. Like all medieval art culture, the art of Gothic is deeply religious, but it tends to life, nature, man. Masters of the new style are interested in a particular person with his feelings, the beauty of nature.
High spirituality images of the Gothic, peculiar to them amazing harmony has prepared a parish of the ancient art of the Renaissance.
Architecture. The architectural look of the free cities of Western Europe, who has been in a bitter struggle relative independence from the feudal lords, transformed. Money artisan communities became customers along with the monasteries, the Church and wealthy landowners, built hospitals, stock exchanges, market halls and houses.
The highest achievements of Gothic art is reached in a Church building. Majestic Gothic cathedrals different from Romanesque sharply. Higher, natty light, they were struck by the elegance, dynamism and charm. Dynamic upward aspiration of all forms of a Gothic Cathedral embodied the human desire for the sublime, soul – to God.
The master of Gothic continue to develop the basilican type of Church. One of the main achievements of Gothic architecture is the allocation of sustainable timber frame system, in which a constructive role of cross ribbed vaults (ribs – ribs that support the dome), the inner pillars (columns) and support external – (outside and within the Cathedral controversy constraining the thrust wall, transmitted to contrators through the were added). This design allowed us to cover the large spans and lift the arches at dizzying heights.
Sculpture. The development of the Gothic plastics are inseparable from architecture. The sculpture belongs to the championship in Gothic art. It occupies a leading position in the decoration of the Cathedral. Sculptures were decorated portals of the temples, where the visitor is greeted by images of prophets, apostles, saints, the impressive size of which reminded the faithful about their place in the great world created by God. The tympanum, the arch of the portals, our turrets, winery were decorated with reliefs and round sculptures.
The highest achievements of Gothic art is reached in a Church building. Majestic Gothic cathedrals different from Romanesque sharply. Higher, smart, light, they were struck by the elegance, dynamism and charm.
The master of Gothic continue to develop the basilican type of Church. One of the main achievements of Gothic architecture is the allocation of sustainable timber frame system, which play an important role cross vaults.
One of the characteristic features of Gothic buildings – the Lancet arch . which is repeated in the essays of the arches, Windows, portals, niches its shape emphasizes the dynamic and ease the upward aspiration of the whole architectural buildings. The interior of a Gothic Cathedral, the walls of which in contrast to the Romanesque penetrate large window, become brighter, Porojan its splendor. The air itself is filled with colourful streams of light sifted through the stained glass Windows, makes a strong impression.
The greatest buildings of the early Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris). In terms of the Cathedral – Basilica with its slightly marked transept.The entrance to the Cathedral is a promising portal of Lancet shape. The Central nave is marked by a rose window.
A remarkable monument of Gothic architecture is the Cathedral of Rome (founded in 1211 Gyu)Cathedral in Amiens (about 1236)
A striking example of Italian Gothic – Doges ‘ Palace in Venice. The Palace is striking holiday decorative splendor of carved marble, stone lace adorn the facades. A continuous series of Lancet arches in the first and second floors, making the building extremely easy.