The way art and culture of the middle Ages
Each cultural epoch has its own peculiar only to her philosophy and understanding of nature and society, time and space, the order of the universe, the relations of people in society etc. All these representations of the medieval era were shaped by the Christian creed and the Christian Church . The first form of medieval Romanesque aesthetics becomes a type of artistic perception, which reflected the time of feudal fragmentation. In the tenth century artistic culture of the middle Ages were able to create a unified European style that received the name of Romanesque (“in the manner of the Romans”).
Unstable historical situation, the constant conflicts of the knights of the almost incessant wars led to the transformation of architecture in the principal art form of the Romanesque style. Stone buildings in the period of civil strife became fortresses and protect people. These structures had massive walls and narrow Windows.
The main types of architectural structures in the Roman age were the feudal castle, the monastery and Church ensemble. Romanesque castle architecture permeated the spirit of militancy and the constant need of self-defense: basic creation of the Romanesque style – this castle-fortress and the temple-fortress. Castle was a symbol of the Romanesque style. It was built on top of a rocky hill or mountain, above the river or the sea. He was surrounded by a moat, over which was thrown a drawbridge, vidosic goal. Monolithic walls of the fortress crowned with battlements, towers and battlements. The castle also included a high rectangular or round tower, the donjon, which housed the dungeons, numerous storage rooms and rooms for servants and guards.
The Foundation of the temple style was type of an old Roman Basilica (the building of rectangular shape, divided into 3 or 5 parts of the longitudinal rows of pillars or columns). Medieval builders used the Roman temples vaulted construction and, given the fact that the arch support presses not only downward, but also gives a so-called spacer, i.e., as it pushes the supports, did the poles and the walls are very thick and massive, and openings are rare and narrow.
Thus, the main features of the Romanesque style in architecture were: the predominance of cylindrical shape and cross vaults, massive pillars and a heavy, smooth, and thick walls with a small number of narrow openings.
In the beginning of the XII century Romanesque style, still retained a medieval the harshness and isolation of architectural forms, gives way to a new style, called Gothic .
The formation of the Gothic style was due to the rapid development of burgher culture, which began to play a decisive role in the life of medieval society. Religion gradually loses its dominant position.
A leading art form in the Gothic was the architecture and his greatest achievement – the building of city cathedrals.
The main role in the Gothic architecture played urban cathedrals and the town hall: the first were a symbol of wealth, and the second is his independence.
The main features of Gothic style:
1. Upward pointed arch Windows and doorways (thanks to them temples were filled with light pouring in from everywhere, as if the divine effulgence).
2. Laciness (Lancet Windows, stained glass, niches, galleries, portals, decorated with carvings).
3. The upward aspiration (on the facade of the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis in France embossed words: “Sensual beauty the soul rises to the true beauty and from the earth rises to heaven”).
4. The height and spaciousness of the interior.
5. The walls are decorated with numerous sculptures (human figures showed conversion of the Church to human world).
Thus, through rational architectural solutions, not conspicuous, the masters of the Gothic style managed to convey the idea of divine heavenly beauty.
The Gothic Basilica was a cross with a long vertical line on the Western front was a large round window with stained glass.
One of the masterpieces of French Gothic architecture is the Notre Dame de Paris – the famous Paris Notre Dame. Sample “Mature Gothic” and “Academy of arts” has become the famous French Cathedral in Reims – the traditional place of coronation of the kings of France. In France the most famous Gothic monastery of Mont Saint Michel in Normandy, which stands on a cliff. It was called La Merva that means “miracle”. The most famous Gothic Cathedral Germany – Cologne.
Subjects for paintings and sculptural images in the Middle ages, of course, were the themes of the greatness and power of God: sculpture and painting were to be the “Bible for the illiterate”, depicting Christian subjects. Particularly popular among the sculptors of the figure of the virgin. Stylistic feature of medieval image was that the figure of Christ is greatly superior size other pieces. Medieval sculpture is, as a rule, emaciated body; they transmit the beauty is not external, but internal, subtle movements of the human soul.