The Gothic art of France
In some architectural schools (e.g. in England) the number of ribs was great, the builders gave extra rib, so-called lierne, tierceron.
Gothic cross in the arch loads are applied does not on the whole circumference, but only in those places, where the diagonal and axial ribs. This is effective not only to Central but to the side naves. In fact, in the Gothic cathedrals of the wall between the pylons are eliminated and replaced with vast window openings. In this framing system, the places of application of force and a reference point was supposed to strengthen. In this regard, acquire a special role of the buttresses for greater stability which they gave stepped.
In Gothic architecture appear the so-called flying buttresses, which were a crucial element in the overall system balance of the building. The flying buttresses — protivozastojnye elements, “sloping” of the arch (the arch), a fifth adjacent to the base of the vault of the main nave, and the other resting against a massive pillar standing in a row of others on the line of the exterior walls of the building. The flying buttresses are designed to hold in fixed position the arch of the main nave. The thrust of the vault is transmitted by flying buttresses, performing the role of “brace”, “brace” to the buttresses, pagesas a mass of the latter. The flying buttresses,being purely structural parts, being brought out of the building, play a very active role in the formation of the external shape of the structure, giving it the delicacy which characterizes the Gothic style.
Thus, the main element of Gothic design are: window piers of minimum cross section, the inner columns is very limited cross — pylons, ribs (droving) vaults, flying buttresses and buttresses. The building’s structure becomes the skeletal, skeleton character. 8
The only massive part of the Gothic buildings of the temple (Cathedral) was the main facade. In most cases, especially in the French architecture, who showed a truly classic examples of the Gothic style, the main facade was located two huge massive towers that surrounded the sides of the Central field of this facade. In the Romanesque churches, it was common to see four towers placed in pairs and, in addition, the fifth, the largest, a massive tower, replacing the dome. In the Gothic churches remain only two towers on the main facade, and they greatly increase in size, and tower at the crossing, turning into a thin spire.
In Romanesque architecture the active role played by the sculptural decoration. Round and relief sculpture, architectural ornamentation has been applied in many facilities, especially in France, for the design of the main facades of the churches, and partly in the interior. Inside the facilities were used, and mural painting, although they are preserved only in certain monuments. In the Gothic buildings of monumental sculpture acquires a special development, although in most of the major cathedrals of its applications were limited due to the frame structures. The predominant location of the arrays were the Western wall, the entrance part of the building (the main facade, portals, towers).
Fresco paintings from the same frame-based structures structures are becoming obsolete, and the leading role passes to the stained-glass Windows, sometimes of enormous size and unusually expressive drawing and coloring. In Gothic architecture the synthesis of the arts obtained exclusive development; however, he had a number of specific features.