Ancient and new buildings in historic sections of cities
As shown in the previous Chapter, many groups over the centuries, changing, replenishing with new facilities and acquired new aesthetic qualities. In addition, each era was created in the historical cities of their ensembles, which often evolved into a single art system with ancient ensembles. All of this suggests that today it is possible and often necessary new construction that complements the historic town of new ensembles or even individual incorporating modern facilities into the existing ensemble construction.
But we must bear in mind that today the blend of old and new becomes a problem many times more complex than before. This is due to the changing scale and technology of new construction, with the necessity of solving a number of complex engineering and social issues with the advent of an entirely new stage in the development of urban culture in the broadest sense of the word. So today it is particularly important that the introduction of the new building in the old city was carried out with great tact and skill, with preliminary thorough study of the historical principles of the buildings of the old town and only in those cases when it is possible to prove the need for such new construction.
It should be noted that the practice of modern construction has a number premenovanie successful application of traditional principles of architectural composition in ensembles that occur outside of the historic core of the city.
Historically established principles of silhouette city received its further development and enrichment in our days. An example of this is the successful arrangement of the most high-rise buildings erected in Moscow in 50-th years. They became a kind of temporal and large-scale reformulation of the composition of the historical part of the city. Interacting harmoniously with the ancient centre, they support and enrich its unique silhouette, like developing it in time and space.
In particular, the architecture of scale and height of an administrative building on Lermontovskaya square well harmonized with the surrounding buildings. Moreover, this construction forming centric composition of the square, subject to her impressive vertical accent — new high-rise building.
The historic tradition of the formation of the composition of the streets continued in modern buildings Kutuzovsky Prospekt. Soft turns of the prospectus successfully combined with a number of emerged in the last decades of the dominants. Due to this, when driving along the Avenue towards the center the prospect of consistently completing high-rise building of Ukraine the building of the CMEA, Kalinin Avenue vertical. In this case the plain building blends well with the architecture and proportions of high-rise buildings.
Administrative high-rise building on Smolensk square well inserted in the surrounding buildings, are properly oriented with the main facade on Borodinsky bridge and the area of the Kiev station. The scale of the surrounding houses and high-rise building geometrically and proportionally mutually linked and as well, as volume of construction around the building on Lermontov square due to the architectural unity of the composition. A broad approach Borodinsky highway from the gate to the Smolensk area to the recent past gave a good view of the whole composition with high-rise building in the center. Note that new buildings in the square, in our opinion, is discordant with the General composition of the ensemble.
Recently built two parallel pylons of high-rise buildings restrict the entire composition of a high-rise ensemble, hiding his tectonic quality, violate the integrity of its review. Two identical volume significantly protruding beyond the red line front building of the highway is unnecessary and unsuccessful elements in the ensemble of the Smolensk square. The resulting lack of transport communications in the neck between the two buildings has hampered the solution of the transport interchanges in the conditions of a large modern city.
The architectural composition of the Central building, its scale and the nature of the relationship it forms with the surrounding spatial environment, its importance in maintaining the architectural silhouette of the city and the integrity of the ensemble of the Smolensk area excluded the possibility of setting two monotonous, alien to the architecture of the buildings.
This paper shows that outside areas with preserved historic buildings there are examples of well-designed ensembles, using traditional techniques of urban composition. Although there are certainly examples of failed or controversial decisions.
They are much more complicated in cases where new urban development decisions relate to areas of historic buildings, directly affect the interests of the monuments.
A positive example is the formulation of the building of the Minsk Gorky street in Moscow. The building with the large volume and the whole facade a bit from the frontage line of the street, although the width of the sidewalk allowed to put a building on the main line. The authors of the project correctly decided to move the building a little deeper. This has provided a good approach to the building, but the main successfully solved the problem of its spatial relationship with the surrounding buildings organically entered in system of the main building of the XI’s-early XX century.
A good example of a modern ensemble composition is, in my opinion, the area of the Rebellion in Moscow. The ensemble is crowned by a high-rise building. Correctly found the scale of the residential high-rise building connects it with the surrounding buildings and the monument of architecture of XX century — the Widows ‘ home.
Controversial calls made recently in Moscow the reconstruction of the square Nikitsky gate. The square was built two-story houses. In the immediate vicinity is a monument of architecture of the beginning of XIX century — Church of the Great ascension, which once belonged to A. C. Pushkin. In the process of reconstruction of low-rise buildings were demolished I. according to some specialists, architectural properties area improved as a result, as is fully revealed to the square of the Church of the ascension. For others, the demolition of low-rise buildings was a mistake, because the temple was not designed to fully obozrevatelya from the square: the buildings had to be placed just a single dome. The revealed part of the temple plastically poor, the combination of the architectural forms here are not artistically decorated.